Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Curriculum & Instruction

First Advisor

Cherie Gaines

Second Advisor

Shannon D. Collins

Third Advisor

Andrew Courtner


The purpose of this research was to identify teachers’ perceptions of barriers to math achievement below Grade 10, if any, to determine which, if any, of the identified barriers teachers reported, and to determine which, if any, previous recommendations for positive changes in mathematics classrooms teachers reported, as well as identify any teacher reports of resistance to change. I conducted research on 19 participants by collecting questionnaires online due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were teachers of mathematics from Grade 4 through Grade 8. I compared participants’ responses to literature-based components using predetermined coding along with emergent coding to identify new themes in this basic interpretive study. The main finding of this study was low math self-efficacy was a widespread problem among students, which must be overcome to prepare students to pursue a STEM degree due to its role in career development when focusing on mathematics as the social cognitive career theory applied to students seeking a STEM degree. Other finding of this study were teachers still used purely procedural mathematics instruction, students were not developing a strong start in mathematics, and teacher math content knowledge still needed improvement.


Mathematics, Questionnaires, Teachers, Teaching methods