Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Joshua Tipton

Second Advisor

Cherie Gaines

Third Advisor

Jessica Taylor


The historical, traditional mathematics classroom of students sitting in rows receiving information from the teacher and working individually was still prevalent in the 21st century. Many teachers had resorted to student-centered activities to engage passive students, but the minimal progress of math achievement of United States students denoted a need for the reform of the traditional mathematics classroom. In this multi-site, multi-case qualitative study, I explored teacher perceptions of the use of vertical non-permanent surfaces on the impact of engagement, including the use of formative assessment and feedback with mathematics students, and the lesson structure of 360 Degree Math. The study took place in a school district in the State of Georgia with 48 teachers teaching 2nd-12th grades mathematics. One major finding was the increase in the frequency and the manner of formative assessment of students and feedback to students with the implementation of VNPS based on teacher perception. The implementation of VNPS used during instruction in mathematics classrooms increased the opportunity for multiple student interactions and greater mathematics understanding.


Mathematics, Vertical non-permanent surfaces, Formative assessment, Learner engagement, 360 degree math