Final Manuscript Preparation Guidelines

This document provides details on typesetting and layout requirements for the final manuscript submission to Asian Journal of Physical Therapy.

Formatting Requirements

  • Do not include a title page or abstract. (Begin the document with the introduction; a title page, including the abstract, will be added to your paper by the editors.)
  • Do not include page numbers, line numbers, headers, or footers. The editors will add these.
  • The final manuscript should only be in English.
  • Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single Word document file.
  • Page size should be US Letter (8.5 x 11 inches).
  • All page margins (left, right, top, and bottom) should be  one inch.
  • Double-space your text.
  • Use a single-column layout with the left margin justified.
  • Font: Main Body—12 pt. Times New Roman.
  • Tables (number, title, column headings, body, and notes), and Figures (number, title, and notes)—10 pt. Times New Roman.
  • If figures are included, use high-resolution figures, preferably encoded as encapsulated PostScript (eps).
  • Copyedit your manuscript for proper English grammar and spelling.
  • When possible, there should be no pages where more than a quarter of the page is empty space.
  • All references should be in AMA 11th format.
  • Only references published within five years should be included.

Additional Recommendations

Indenting, Line Spacing, and Justification

  • Indent all paragraphs except those following a section heading. An indent should be at least two em-spaces.
  • Do not insert extra space between paragraphs of text except long quotations, theorems, propositions, special remarks, etc. These should be set off from the surrounding text by additional space above and below.
  • Don't use "widow" or "orphan" text (i.e., end a page with the first line of a paragraph or begin a page with the last line of a paragraph).
  • All text should be left-justified (i.e., flush with the left margin—except where indented).

Language & Grammar

  • All submissions must be in English. Foreign words and phrases should be avoided, except for common foreign words and phrases.
  • Authors should use proper, standard English grammar.

Article Length

  • Because this journal publishes electronically, page limits are not as relevant as they are in the world of print publications.
  • We are happy, therefore, to let authors take advantage of this greater "bandwidth" to include material that they might otherwise have to cut to get into a print journal. This said, authors should exercise some discretion with respect to length.

Colored text

  • Set the font color to black for the majority of the text. 
  • We encourage authors to take advantage of the ability to use color in the production of figures, maps, etc. However, you must appreciate that this will cause some of your readers problems when they print the document on a black-and-white printer. For this reason, you are advised to avoid using colors in situations where their translation to black-and-white would render the material illegible or incomprehensible.
  • Please ensure that no colored markups or comments are in the final version unless they are meant to be part of the final text. (You may need to "accept all changes" in track changes or set your document to "normal" in final markup.)

Emphasized text

  • Whenever possible, use italics to indicate text you wish to emphasize rather than underlining it. 
  • The use of color to emphasize text is discouraged.

Font face

  • Use Times New Roman only.

Font size

  • The main body of text should be set in 12pt. Tables and figures should be set in 10pt.

Foreign terms

  • Whenever possible, foreign terms should be set in italics rather than underlined.


  • Headings (e.g., start of sections) should be distinguished from the main body text by their fonts or using small caps. 
  • Use the same font face for all headings and indicate the hierarchy by reducing the font size. 
  • There should be space above and below headings.

Main text

  • The font for the main body of text must be black and in Times New Roman.


  • Whenever possible, titles of books, movies, etc., should be in italics rather than underlined.

Tables and Figures

  • To the extent possible, tables and figures should appear in the document near where they are referenced in the text.
  • Large tables or figures should be put on pages by themselves. 
  • Avoid the use of overly small type in tables. In no case should tables or figures be in a separate document or file. 
  • All tables and figures must fit within 1" margins on all sides (top, bottom, left and right) in both portrait and landscape view. 
  • Table numbers, titles, column headings, body, and notes, and Figure numbers, titles, and notes should be in 10 pt. Times New Roman.


  • Roman letters used in mathematical expressions as variables should be italicized. Roman letters used as part of multi-letter function names should not be italicized. Whenever possible, subscripts and superscripts should be a smaller font size than the main text.
  • Short mathematical expressions should be typed inline. Longer expressions should appear as display math. Also, expressions using many different levels (e.g., such as the fractions) should be set as display math. Important definitions or concepts can also be set off as display math.
  • Equations should be numbered sequentially. Whether equation numbers are on the right or left is the choice of the author(s). However, you are expected to be consistent in this.
  • Symbols and notation in unusual fonts should be avoided. This will not only enhance the clarity of the manuscript but will also help ensure that it displays correctly on the reader's screen and prints correctly on her printer. When proofing your document under PDF pay particular attention to the rendering of the mathematics, especially symbols and notation drawn from other than standard fonts.


  • The official reference style of AJPT is AMA, 11th.
  • While multiple references are allowed, we only accept those published within the last five years.
  • It is the author's obligation to provide complete references with the necessary information. 
  • After the last sentence of your submission, please insert a line break—not a page break—and begin your references on the same page, if possible. References should appear right after the end of the document, beginning on the last page, if possible. References should have left-justified margins. Each reference should give the last names of all the authors, their first names or first initials, and, optionally, their middle initials.

Reference List

  • References are listed numerically in the order they are cited in the text. Two references should not be combined under a single reference number.
  • Use the author's surname followed by initials without periods or spaces. The names of all authors should be given unless there are more than six, in which case the names of the first three authors are used, followed by “et al.” Do not use “and” between names.
  • References to material not yet accepted for publication or to personal communications (oral, written, and electronic) are not acceptable and, instead, should be included parenthetically in the text.
  • Abbreviate and italicize the names of journals. Use initial capital letters. Abbreviate according to the listing in the PubMed Journals database. For information on how journal title abbreviations are constructed, see https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.proxy.cc.uic.edu/books/NBK7282/box/A33351/?report=objectonly.
  • In article titles, capitalize only the first letter of the first word, as well as proper names and abbreviations that are ordinarily capitalized in the reference.

In-text Citations

  • Use Arabic superscript numerals outside periods and commas,  inside colons and semicolons. 
  • When more than two references are cited at a given place in the manuscript, use hyphens to join the first and last numbers of a closed series; use commas without spaces to separate other parts of a multiple citation.

As previously,1,3–8,19

The derived data were as follows3,4:

Minimum information required by type with examples

Scholarly Article

When the DOI is provided, citing it rather than the URL is preferable. Note: The DOI is provided immediately after “doi:” with no spaces. If there is no DOI, then include the URL and accessed date for articles accessed electronically.

Electronic article: minimum information

Author(s). Title. Journal Name. Year;vol(issue #):inclusive pages. DOI.

Print article: minimum information

Author(s). Title. Journal Name. Year;vol(issue #):inclusive pages.


Wheelis M. Investigating disease outbreaks under a protocol to the biological and toxin weapons convention. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6(6):595-600. Accessed October 26, 2010. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol6no6/wheelis.htm.

Lissarassa YPS, Vincensi CF, Costa-Beber LC, et al. Chronic heat treatment positively impacts metabolic profile of ovariectomized rats: association with heat shock response pathways. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2020;25(3):467-479. doi: 10.1007/s12192-020-01087-z.

Book (print, electronic, or chapter)

Regardless of the book type, include any of the following elements that are known in this order: Author(s) (whole book or chapter), Chapter title, Editors (if second or above) and translators, Book title with subtitle, Volume number and title (when there is more than 1), Publisher name, Copyright year, page numbers. The examples below do not include all possible elements.

Print book: minimum information

Author(s). Book Title. Volume # and title. Edition #. Publisher name; copyright year.


Walker J, Pollard, J, Murray E. Methods in Molecular Biology. Volume 2. Humana Press; 1984.

E-book: minimum information

Author(s). Book Title. Volume # and title. Edition #. Publisher name; copyright year. Accessed date. URL.


Modell AH. Imagination and the Meaningful Brain. MIT Press; 2003. Accessed October 31, 2010. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/uic/docDetail.action?docID=10173553.

Chapter within Book: minimum information

Author(s). Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book Title. Edition number. Publisher name; copyright year:inclusive pages.


Sisk JE. Cardiac catheterization. In: Krapp K, ed. The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health. Gale Group; 2002:407-412.


Minimum information

Author(s) (or, if no author is available, the name of the group responsible for the site). Title of the specific item (or, if no title is available, the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name of the Web site. Date published. Date updated. Date Accessed. URL.


U.S. National Library of Medicine. Back Pain. MedlinePlus. n.d. Updated April 30, 2020. Accessed May 14, 2020. https://medlineplus.gov/backpain.html